Monday, December 9, 2019
This survey examines the association between nomadic phone usage and relational uncertainness. familiarity. and fond regard. A study of 197 university pupils presently in romantic relationships revealed that relational uncertainness was negatively associated with the sum of Mobile phone usage. Relational familiarity. nevertheless. was positively associated with nomadic phone usage. In respects to attachment manners. participants with higher degrees of turning away placed fewer calls than those with lower degrees of turning away. Anxiety degrees were non significantly associated with nomadic phone usage. These findings indicate that a higher sum of nomadic communicating between spouses is closely related to positive results in their relationship. Specifically. nomadic communicating between romantic spouses can cut down relational uncertainness and increase familiarity. every bit good as be influenced by the communicatorsÃ¢â¬Ë fond regard manners. Mobile Romantic Communication Mobile Communication in Romantic Relationships: The Relationship Between Mobile Phone Use and Relational Uncertainty. Intimacy. and Attachment Mobile phones have become one of the most permeant interpersonal media. Consequently. the survey of nomadic communicating has been burgeoning in recent old ages ( e. g. . Craig. 2007 ; Katz. 2003 ; Katz A ; Aakhus. 2002 ; Ling A ; Pedersen. 2005 ) . For case. Jin ( 2007 ) uncovered that nomadic communicating portions some similarities with face-to-face communicating. In peculiar. higher sums of both nomadic and face-to-face communicating were negatively associated with solitariness ( Jin. 2007 ) . Besides. persons in romantic relationships used nomadic phones significantly more frequently than those non romantically involved ( Jin. 2007 ) . Similarly. old findings suggest that nomadic communicating tends to happen within close relationships. such as household. romantic twosomes. and friends ( Campbell A ; Russo. 2003 ; Ishii. 2006 ) . It appears that by utilizing nomadic phones people can beef up their household bonds. facilitate friendly relationships. and construct common support ( Campbell A ; Kelley. 2006 ; Campbell A ; Russo. 2003 ; Ishii. 2006 ; Wei A ; Lo. 2006 ) . Katz and Aakhus ( 2002 ) argue that. across civilizations. people use communicating tools in ways that maximize their demands and amenitiess. frequently ensuing in the innovation of new ways people interact. In line with this. Licoppe ( 2004 ) argued that the coming of nomadic engineering enabled us to develop a peculiar communicating form in close relationships. which is referred to as the affiliated manner of communicating. This manner is represented by short and frequent communicative gestures. as illustrated by immature peopleÃ¢â¬Ës usage of nomadic phones ( Licoppe. 2004 ) . In support of nomadic communicating as a medium to keep connectivity. Ling and Yttri ( 2002 ) found that immature people used their nomadic phones to maintain look intoing what their friends are making to organize each otherÃ¢â¬Ës activities. As such. a ?connected? manner of keeping relationships is going a outstanding day-to-day pattern of modern twosomes ( Licoppe. 2004 ) . These surveies. nevertheless. have non yet to the full examined how nomadic communicating between romantic spouses is associated with relational procedures and results. For illustration. does mobile phone usage in romantic twosomes alleviate or augment feelings of uncertainness about how the relationship will develop in the hereafter? To turn to the inquiry. the present survey investigated how relational uncertainness and familiarity are influenced by Mobile phone usage in romantic relationships. Besides. given that a assortment of personal affectional procedures have been linked to media usage. single features were expected to act upon nomadic communicating between spouses. For illustration. Ellison. Steinfield. and Lampe ( 2007 ) demonstrated how peopleÃ¢â¬Ës self-pride may act upon their usage of societal web sites. Besides. feelings of solitariness and depression might predispose some people to develop debatable Internet usage behaviours ( Caplan. 2003 ) . However. we soon know small about how people with different ways of associating usage nomadic communicating. In peculiar. peopleÃ¢â¬Ës fond regard manners exert dependable influence over communicative behaviours. particularly in close relationships ( Bartholomew A ; Horowitz. 1991 ) . and hence attachment manner was considered in this survey. Relational Uncertainty One cardinal procedure in interpersonal relationships relates to peopleÃ¢â¬Ës motive and schemes geared at cut downing relational uncertainness. Put it otherwise. people set up and develop close relationships with others by increasing assurance about what each other thinks about their relationship. To this respect. uncertainness decrease theory ( Berger A ; Calabrese. 1975 ) efforts to explicate how uncertainness guides the behaviours of interactants at the initial phase of M obile Romantic Communication their relationship. From this position. at the beginning of an brush. one is motivated to cut down his/her uncertainness about the other individual. Relational uncertainness can be reduced by obtaining cognition of the other individual. which enables the interactant to do anticipations and accounts about the behaviour of the other individual with whom he/she is interacting ( Berger A ; Calabrese. 1975 ) . Uncertainty decrease theory has been extended and refined by embracing a assortment of beginnings of uncertainness and of relational contexts ( see Knobloch. 2007 ; Knobloch A ; Solomon. 2002 ) . For illustration. Knobloch and Solomon ( 2002 ) pointed out that most research on relational uncertainness still holds premises made on initial interactions. and they proposed a reconceptualization of relational uncertainness relevant to shut relationships. They defined relational uncertainness as ?the grade of assurance people have in their perceptual experiences of engagement within interpersonal relationships? ( p. 245 ) . Besides. they demonstrated that relational uncertainness stems from three beginnings: the ego. the spouse. and the relationship. Self uncertainness means the uncertainties about oneÃ¢â¬Ës ain engagement in the relationship. Partner uncertainness implies the uncertainties about oneÃ¢â¬Ës partnerÃ¢â¬Ës engagement in the relationship. and relationship uncertainness concerns the uncertainties about the relationship itself ( Knobloch A ; Solomon. 1999. 2002 ) . The decrease of relational uncertainness is basically good to spouses. It can advance feelings of intimacy between spouses by taking them to accomplish desired results such as committedness ( Knobloch A ; Solomon. 2002 ) . One scheme people use to get by with relational uncertainness is to increase verbal communicating with their spouses ( Berger A ; Kellermann. 1983 ; Kellermann A ; Berger. 1984 ) . For illustration. spouses in close relationships tend to use synergistic tactics such as speaking over most frequently in response to uncertaintyincreasing events ( Emmers A ; Canary. 1996 ; Planalp A ; Honeycutt. 1985 ; Planalp. Rutherford. A ; Mob ile Romantic Communication Honeycutt. 1988 ) . In drumhead. old surveies have systematically shown that the more communicating between relational spouses. the lower their relational uncertainness. Given that synergistic. verbal schemes are the most common ways twosomes deal with uncertainness. so we expect that these behaviours might cut down uncertainness in mediated interactions as good. In support of this position. there is grounds that repeated message exchanges over clip allow people to cut down uncertainness about spouses in computer-mediated scenes every bit successfully as they do in face-to-face contexts ( e. g. . Tidwell A ; Walther. 2002 ; Walther. 1992 ; Walther A ; Burgoon. 1992 ) . Sing this. mobile phone usage between spouses should hold a important influence on their relational uncertainness. Since increased degrees of verbal communicating between spouses tend to cut down relational uncertainness ( Berger A ; Calabrese. 1975 ) . increased degrees of nomadic communicating should besides be associated with reduce d degrees of relational uncertainness. Therefore. the undermentioned hypothesis is offered: H1: Higher degrees of Mobile phone usage are associated with lower degrees of relational uncertainness. Intimacy Most bookmans agree that familiarity is an indispensable characteristic of close relationships and a cardinal index of the quality of the relationships. Familiarity can be defined as the emotional bond between spouses in a relationship ( e. g. . Parks A ; Floyd. 1996 ; Perlman A ; Fehr. 1987 ) . Relationship bookmans tend to see familiarity as a procedure in which spouses become mutualist ( e. g. . Berscheid. 1983 ; Kelley et Al. . 1983 ; Reis A ; Patrick. 1996 ) . Mutuality implies that spouses within a dyad control each otherÃ¢â¬Ës outcomes in the class of their interaction ( Kelley A ; Thibaut. 1978 ) . which is fostered by interrelated day-to-day activities for a continuance of clip ( Kelly et Al. . 1983 ) . Close relationships are built on confidant and Mobile Romantic Communication interdependent interactions . wherein intimate feelings and revelations occur ( Altman A ; Taylor. 1973 ; Reis A ; Patrick. 1996 ) . Feelingss of familiarity are influenced by both the quality ( Montgomery. 1988 ; Prager. 2000 ) and the measure of communicating ( Emmers-Sommer. 2004 ; Hays. 1988 ) . We soon focus on the latter. Consider. for illustration. grounds from a recent survey demoing a positive association between the frequence of insouciant interactions and relational results such as liking and satisfaction in married twosomes ( Kline A ; Stafford. 2004 ) . Besides. in Emmers-SommerÃ¢â¬Ës ( 2004 ) survey. the measure of interactions including face-to-face and phone calls significantly influence familiarity between spouses in close relationships. These findings resonate with DuckÃ¢â¬Ës ( 1994 ) contention that mundane talk of relational spouses serves to organize connection between them. In peculiar. the significance of the relationship is created through talk happening in mundane interactions irrespective of the content of the talk ( Duck. 1994 ) . Therefore. we can theorize that more frequent and longer talk between spouses would be critical for them to see a sense of connection. Consequently. it is sensible to anticipate that spouses interacting through nomadic phones more frequently should hold more intimate feelings toward each other. H2: Higher degrees of Mobile phone usage are associated with higher degrees of familiarity. Attachment Style Last. the present survey examined how the attachment manners of romantically involved participants are associated with their nomadic communicating. Attachment manners have been most often used to understand single differences in relational temperaments ( Daly. 2002 ) . because they can foretell individualsÃ¢â¬Ë relational forms with important others ( Bartholomew A ; Horowitz. 1991 ; Hazan A ; Shaver. 1987 ) . Mobile Romantic Communication Hazan and Shaver ( 1987 ) conceptualized romantic love as an attachment procedure. in which an person becomes emotionally bonded to his/her romantic spouse in a similar manner that an infant becomes attached to primary health professionals. Besides. they contend that persons with different attachment manners experience romantic relationships otherwise ( Hazan A ; Shaver. 1987 ) . Based on the old grounds. Brennan. Clark. and Shaver ( 1998 ) claimed that fond regard manners can be viewed as a map of two dimensionsÃ¢â¬âavoidance and anxiousness. Avoidance concerns the inclination to maneuver clear of intimate contact due to discomfort with intimacy. while anxiousness represents strong desire for intimacy coupled with fright of forsaking ( Bartholomew A ; Horowitz. 1991 ; Brennan et Al. . 1998 ) . In relation to how attachment manner affects romantic relationships. extant research has found that persons with secure fond regard manners function good in their close relationships. compared to those with dying and avoidant manners. In peculiar. persons with secure fond regards are more likely to prosecute in behaviours that promote familiarity ( Grabill A ; Kerns. 2000 ) . On the contrary. avoidant and dying persons are less likely to prosecute in selfdisclosure ( Grabill A ; Kerns. 2000 ; Mikulincer A ; Nachson. 1991 ) and seeking and giving support ( Mikulincer. Florian. A ; Weller. 1993 ) than those securely attached. Further. in Brennan and ShaverÃ¢â¬Ës ( 1995 ) survey. the people with unafraid fond regard showed proximity-seeking behaviours. such as sharing thoughts and speaking about each otherÃ¢â¬Ës twenty-four hours with a romantic spouse. more than did those with avoidant and anxious-ambivalence fond regards. Interestingly. Anders and Tucker ( 2000 ) found that av oidant and dying people are non competent in interpersonal communicating. as compared to firmly affiliated people. Based on this. it can be expected that non-securely attached people are less likely to bask interacting with important others over nomadic phones since they engage in lower degrees of self-disclosure and societal support. On the contrary. it is likely that firmly attached persons enjoy nomadic communicating with their spouses more than non-securely attached. both avoidant and dying. opposite numbers. In line with this logical thinking. the undermentioned hypotheses are proposed: H3a: Higher degrees of Mobile phone usage are associated with lower degrees of turning away. H3b: Higher degrees of Mobile phone usage are associated with lower degrees of anxiousness. Methods Participants Students in introductory communicating categories at a big Southwestern university received excess recognition for their engagement in an on-line study. Although anyone could take part in the survey. merely information from those presently involved in romantic relationships were analyzed for the present survey. All of the participants possessed a nomadic phone. Three married participants were excluded. ensuing in the sample size of 197. The sample included 60 ( 30. 4 % ) males and 137 females. who ranged in age from 18 to 34 ( M = 19. 40. SD = 1. 64 ) . More than half of the participants ( 53. 3 % ) were Caucasic. 21. 3 % were Hispanic. and 16. 2 % were Asiatic. One hundred 28 participants indicated their relational position as ?seriously dating? ( 65. 0 % ) . 39 as ?casually dating? ( 19. 8 % ) . 24 as ?potentially dating? ( 12. 2 % ) . and 6 as ?engaged? ( 3 % ) . The mean relationship length was 15. 4 months ( SD = 15. 42 ) . runing from less than one month to six old ages. Among the participants analyzed. six ( 3 % ) reported on a homosexual relationship. Measures Mobile phone usage. The on-line study asked participants to gauge the sum of clip they spent utilizing calls with their romantic spouse via nomadic phones in a twenty-four hours. Participants besides reported the numerical est imations of the frequence of directing and having calls with their romantic spouse in a twenty-four hours. Because the frequence of doing calls was extremely correlated with that of having calls ( R = . 82 ) . they were summed to make the composite variable named call frequence. The call clip and name frequence variables were analyzed individually because they were comparatively reasonably correlated ( r = . 58 ) . The mean clip in a twenty-four hours participants exhausted naming with their romantic spouse was about an hr and 15 proceedingss ( M = 74. 59 proceedingss. SD = 105. 19. Mode = 60 ) . The mean frequence with which participants used voice calls with their romantic spouse was approximately seven times ( M = 6. 78. SD = 5. 21. Mode = 2 ) in a twenty-four hours. As the big criterion divergence value for each variable indicates. the distributions of these two variables were extremely skewed. Therefore. log transmutations were performed on these variables. which resulted in important betterment in the normalcy of the information. These transformed variables were used in the undermentioned analyses. Relational uncertainness. Theiss and SolomonÃ¢â¬Ës ( 2006 ) step on relational uncertainness was included in the online study. This step is a shorter version of the step originally developed by Knobloch and Solomon ( 1999 ) . which is comprised of 20 statements. preceded by a root that reads ?How certain are you about. . . ? ? Participants rated their certainty with each statement utilizing a 6-point Likert-type graduated table ( 1 = wholly or about wholly unsure. 6 = wholly or about wholly certain ) . Responses to all points were rearward scored so that higher tonss on these graduated tables indicate higher degrees of uncertainness. The subscale mensurating self uncertainness contained six points. including ?whether you want the relationship to work out in the long run? ( M = 2. 20. SD = 1. 20. ? = . 94 ) . Partner uncertainness besides consisted of six points. including ?whether your spouse is ready to perpetrate to you? ( M = 2. 03. SD = 1. 19. ? = . 95 ) . and relationship unce rtainness included eight points. such as ?whether the relationship will work out in the long run? ( M = 2. 23. SD = 1. 10. ? = . 92 ) . Because the subscales were extremely correlated ( rs = . 64~ . 83 ) . the composite variable of overall relational uncertainness was created. The 20 points were combined so that higher tonss reflect greater uncertainness ( M = 2. 13. SD = 1. 06. ? = . 97 ) . Familiarity. In this survey. familiarity was measured utilizing two constructs: love and committedness. Although familiarity can be assessed by a assortment of ways. we chose love and committedness because they represent good the distinctive. yet related. characteristicsÃ¢â¬âi. e. . intimacy and interdependenceÃ¢â¬âof romantic relationships ( Kelley. 1983 ) . These two variables are frequently considered as indexs of familiarity between romantic spouses ( e. g. . Cole. 2001 ; Solomon A ; Knobloch. 2004 ) . RubinÃ¢â¬Ës ( 1970 ) Love Scale was included in the online study. This scale consists of 13 statements with a response graduated table that ranges from 1 ( non at all true ) to 9 ( decidedly true ) . Example points include ?If my spouse were experiencing severely. my first responsibility would be to hearten him/her up? and ?I feel that I can confide in my spouse about virtually everything? ( M = 6. 59. SD = 1. 47. ? = . 90 ) . Committedness was measured with the corresponding subscale developed by Rusbult and associates ( 1998 ) . The commitment subscale consists of seven points. such as ?I want our relationship to last for a really long clip. ? For each point. a 7-point response graduated table ( 1 = do non hold at all. 7 = agree wholly ) was provided ( M = 5. 33. SD = 1. 64. ? = . 92 ) . Because we operationalized familiarity as a mixture of love and committedness. the these two variables ( R = . 75 ) were converted to z-scores and averaged to organize a composite variable of familiarity. Attachment manner. ParticipantsÃ¢â¬Ë attachment manners were measured by the Multi-Item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment Scale ( Brennan et al. . 1998 ) . The on-line study included two 18-item subscales: turning away and anxiousness. Example points include ?I prefer non to be near to romantic partners? ( avoidance graduated table ) and ?I worry a batch about my relationships? ( anxiety graduated table ) . For each point. a 7-point Likert-type graduated table ( 1 = disagree strongly. 7 = agree strongly ) was provided. The two subscales were computed so that the higher the mark. the greater the presence of the characteristic referenced by the scaleÃ¢â¬Ës name. Coefficient alphas were. 93 for turning away graduated table ( M = 2. 68. SD = 1. 17 ) and. 91 for anxiousness graduated table ( M = 3. 38. SD = 1. 15 ) . Results Table 1 includes the intercorrelations among survey variables. H1 predicted that nomadic phone usage should negatively correlate with the degrees of relational uncertainness. This anticipation was supported. Call clip was significantly. negatively related to relational uncertainness ( r = . 34. P lt ; . 001 ) . and besides call frequence was negatively associated with relational uncertainness ( r = . 41. P lt ; . 001 ) . These consequences imply that the more the participants placed voice calls via nomadic phones with their spouse. the less they felt relational unc ertainness. The 2nd hypothesis dealt with the relationship between Mobile phone usage and familiarity in romantic relationships. Mobile phone usage was significantly. positively associated with familiarity ( for call clip. R = . 38. P lt ; . 001 ; for call frequence. R = . 42. P lt ; . 001 ) . Participants utilizing nomadic phone calls more often and longer with their romantic spouses reported the greater degrees of familiarity in their relationship. Therefore. H2 was supported. Remember that H3a-b were about the relationship between Mobile phone usage and fond regard manners. H3a posited a negative relationship between Mobile phone usage and the degree of turning away. ParticipantsÃ¢â¬Ë scores on the turning away graduated table were significantly. negatively associated with the clip they spent naming ( R = . 22. p = . 002 ) and the frequence with which they made and standard calls ( R = . 33. P lt ; . 001 ) . Therefore. H3a was supported. H3b. nevertheless. was non supported. which expected that participants with higher anxiousness tonss should demo reduced degrees of Mobile phone usage. Anxiety was non significantly correlated with call clip ( r = . 11. N ) or call frequence ( R = . 06. N ) . In short. participants who tended to avoid intimate contact used nomadic phones with their spouse significantly less than those who did non. but participantsÃ¢â¬Ë anxiousness on their relationship did non significantly affect nomadic phone usage with their spouse. Discussion This survey examined couplesÃ¢â¬Ë mobile phone usage with respect to their relational and single characteristicsÃ¢â¬ârelational uncertainness. familiarity. and attachment. Specifically. participants describing greater frequence and continuance of clip utilizing voice calls showed lower degrees of relational uncertainness and higher degrees of familiarity. In add-on. participants who felt uncomfortable with closenessÃ¢â ¬âavoidant individualsÃ¢â¬âtended to utilize voice calls less than those who did non. The findings suggest that in the context of romantic relationships. greater usage of nomadic phones. peculiarly voice calls. is associated with more positive facets of relationships. For illustration. the more the usage of nomadic phones. the lower the reported relational uncertainness ( H1 ) . This is consistent with uncertainness decrease theory ( Berger A ; Calabrese. 1975 ) . which predicts that higher frequence of brushs is associated to take down uncertainness in societal interactions. Previous surveies have demonstrated peopleÃ¢â¬Ës inclination to increase verbal interactions to cover with relational uncertainness ( e. g. . Emmers A ; Canary. 1996 ; Planalp A ; Honeycutt. 1985 ; Planalp et Al. . 1988 ) . Likewise. as a manner of interpersonal communicating. nomadic communicating between spouses seems to lend to decrease of their relational uncertainness. The findings besides resonate with WaltherÃ¢â¬Ës ( 1992 ) suggestion that repeated brushs and drawn-out interaction c lip Fosters relational development among spouses pass oning through engineering. The consequences besides indicate that as the sum of nomadic communicating additions. the intimacy between spouses in a relationship additions. The more the nomadic phone usage within romantic couples. the stronger the familiarity ( H2 ) . Given that frequent interconnectedness is necessary to organize a close relationship ( Kelley et al. . 1983 ) . nomadic communicating seems to carry through peopleÃ¢â¬Ës need for interconnection in close relationships. This procedure may ensue in greater degrees of love and committedness. and overall more familiarity. The non-tethered characteristic of nomadic phones may let twosomes to pass on with each other whenever and wherever they want. and possibly it besides satisfies the demands of spouses in an confidant relationship who have strong desires to pass on with each other. Apart from the technological factors. immature peopleÃ¢â¬Ës forms of nomadic phone usage may further mutuality with their important others. For illustration. alternatively of puting a fixed assignment. they arrange and rearrange it on a real-time footing thanks to mobile phones ( Ling A ; Yttri. 2002 ) . Besides. frequent. short calls and messages may take communicators to continuously experience feelings of connection between them ( Licoppe. 2004 ) . It is possible that more frequent nomadic communicating helps twosomes coordinate their day-to-day activities. which may take to increased feelings of intimacy. Simply talking. the findings of this survey suggest that nomadic communicating between spouses is closely related to their familiarity. Attachment and Mobile Communication As relational temperaments of persons. fond regard manners were associated with nomadic communicating in couple relationships. Participants utilizing lower sums of voice calls within their dating relationships reported higher inclination of turning away ( H3a ) . Highly avoidant people are characterized by experiencing uncomfortable with intimacy. trust. and dependence ( Hazan A ; Shaver. 1987 ) . Therefore. they may experience uneasy being approachable at any clip by their spouse. so they may non take advant age of nomadic phones. whereas non-avoidant people seem to do good usage of nomadic phones to reach their spouse. We expected dying persons would do less usage of nomadic phones. but anxiety dimension was non significantly associated with nomadic phone usage ( H3b ) . This may be because anxiousness. by itself. refers to a cognitive or emotional province instead than behaviorsÃ¢â¬âanxiety over relationship ( forsaking ) . To sum up. turning away degrees of participants affected their nomadic phone usage with spouses. while anxiousness degrees did non. Limitations Some restrictions of the present survey include the self-report method to mensurate the measure of nomadic communicating. which may non be dependable because participants had to remember and gauge the frequence and clip of utilizing nomadic phones. Besides. although it seems rather plausible that nomadic communicating can straight impact uncertainness and familiarity. we can non except the possibility of the other manner of causality. For case. increased degrees of familiarity or connection between spouses may bring on them to prosecute in more contact. These restrictions address future research with tighter methodological control. 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Newbury Park. Calcium: Sage. Planalp. S. . A ; Honeycutt. J. M. ( 1985 ) . Events that increase uncertainness in personal relationships. Human Communication Research. 11. 593-604. Planalp. S. . Rutherford. D. K. . A ; Honeycutt. J. M. ( 1988 ) . Events that increase uncertainness in personal relationships II: Reproduction and extension. Human Communication Research. 14. 516-547. Prager. K. J. ( 2000 ) . Familiarity in personal relationships. In S. S. Hendrick A ; C. Hendrick ( Eds. ) . Close relationships: A sourcebook ( pp. 229-242 ) . Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage. Reis. H. T. . A ; Patrick. B. C. ( 1996 ) . Attachment and familiarity: Component procedures. In E. T. Higgins A ; A. W. Kruglanski ( Eds. ) . Social psychological science: Handbook of basic rules ( pp. 23-563 ) . New York: Guilford. Rubin. Z. ( 1970 ) . Measurement of romantic love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 16. 265-273. Rusbult. C. E. . Martz. J. M. . A ; Agnew. C. R. ( 1998 ) . The investing theoretical account graduated table: Measuring committedness degree. satisfaction degree. quality of options. and investing size. Personal Relationships. 5. 357-391. Solomon. D. H. . A ; Knobloch. L. K. ( 2004 ) . A theoretical account of relational turbulency: The function of familiarity. relational uncertainness. and intervention from spouses in assessments of annoyances. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 21. 795-816. Sternberg. R. J. ( 1988 ) . Triangulating love. In R. Sternberg A ; M. Barnes ( Eds. ) . The psychological science of love ( pp. 119-138 ) . New Haven: Yale University Press. Theiss. J. A. . A ; Solomon. D. H. ( 2006 ) . A relational turbulency theoretical account of communicating about annoyances in romantic relationships. Communication Research. 33. 391-418. Tidwell. L. C. . A ; Walther. J. B. ( 2002 ) . Computer-mediated communicating effects on revelation. feelings. and interpersonal ratings: Geting to cognize one another a spot at a clip. Human Communication Research. 28. 317-348. Walther. J. B. ( 1992 ) . Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: A relational position. Communication Research. 19. 52-90. Walther. J. B. . A ;Burgoon. J. K. ( 1992 ) . Relational communicating in computer-mediated interaction. Human Communication Research. 19. 50-88. Wei. R. . A ; Lo. V. -H. ( 2006 ) . Staying connected while on the move: Mobile phone usage and societal connection. New Media A ; Society. 8. 53-72. Mobile Romantic Communication Table 1 Intercorrelations of Study Variables 1 1. Name clip 2. Name frequence 3. Self uncertainness 4. Partner uncertainness 5. Relationship uncertainness 6. Relational uncertainness a 7. Love 8. Committedness 9. Familiarity b 10. Avoidance ? . 58** . 35** . 32** . 31** . 36** . 36** . 37** . 38** . 22* ? . 33** . 39** . 39** . 41** . 40** . 41** . 42** . 33** ? . 64** . 83** . 90** . 71** . 84** . 82** . 56** ? . 76** . 87** . 56** . 62** . 63** . 50** ? . 96** . 66** . 78** . 75** . 60** ? . 71** . 82** . 80** . 61** ? . 75** . 94** . 57** ? . 94** . 61** ? . 63** ? ? 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11. Anxiety . 11 . 06. 09. 31** . 26** . 25** . 04 . 09 . 04. 24** Note. a Composite variable of ego. spouse. and relationship uncertainness. b Composite variable of love and committedness N = 187~197. * P lt ; . 01. ** P lt ; . 001.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Profit, which equals the cost on a business minus by revenue, is one of the most important things to a business owner. The business and products I talk here are all long-term. One of the simplest ways to get more profit is to decrease the cost on a product. First, and the simplest one is to decrease the money you pay for the workers, especially for companies have huge number of products and little profit on every single good. (Actually, most companies are like this. ) Consider if every company is doing the same thing.At first, because the less you pay to the workers, the lowest price of your rodents can be lower, the easier you can sell your goods, but as the money become less and less, workers cannot afford the products and the demand of your products starts to decrease which will cause the price keep reducing and the amount of good you sold also get lower and lower. We will write a custom essay sample on laissez-faire or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As the result, you have to pay your workers even much lower to keep your cost less than your revenue. For workers, the wage getting lower also causes a lot of disaffection to the company. It will become a vicious circle and finally cause the whole companys bankruptcy.Another way is use less people, which means automation. The big problem here is unemployment, more and more people will lose their job and income, which will also cause the demand decreases and become the same ending as the first theory. Lets talk about competition between different companies. If the government doesnt have any limit to the companies, bigger companies with more power and money will start to gobble up other small ones, these things keep repeating, large enterprises get larger, and the small ones get smaller or even are swallowed up by others.Finally, the largest company will monopoly the whole market and controls the price of these products. Because there is only one company, they can get the price as high as they want, (all the supply is from the same source, so they can control the amount they provide to the market and the price they want for the goods. ) The company become more and more powerful and affects the whole market which will not be an open, competitive market anymore. Another way to explain the disadvantage of monopoly is that most countries today have their antitrust laws to anti-monopoly.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Sister essays In the play called Antigone it was about how Antigone wanted to give her brother a proper burial but her uncle Creon would not allow it. Antigone went against his will and buried him anyways. When Creon found out he sentenced her to death and her sister Ismene wanted to die with her. Creon did not want to kill Ismene because even though she said she helped Antigone he she was lying. When he killed Antigone his son killed himself because he wanted to marry her. Then Creons wife killed herself because her son died. In the end he was left alone. What drew my attention to the play the most was the love Antigone and Ismene had for each other and the relationship they shared. In the beginning of the play Antigone came to Ismene and ask her to help give there brother a proper barrel she said no because that will be going against Creons will. Antigone let her know that no matter what she was going to give her brother a proper barrel and if she didnt want to help then she would hate her. When Antigone was caught and sentenced to death her sister came to her side even through all of the arguing they had been through. When Antigone and Ismene were arguing about barring there brother it reminded me of my sister and I when we would argue and sometimes even tell each other that we hate one another. Then whenever one of us has a problem we know that we can count on the other to come through for us just like Ismene did for Antigone when she was caught for going against Creon rules. I believe that Antigone and Ismene role in the play was meant to show the relationship between two sisters. I also believe that Antigones role was meant to show the love that Antigone had for her brother. ...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Author Interviews How to Appear on Podcasts for Book Promotion Author Interviews: How to Land Appearances on Podcasts for Book Promotion Author interviews via podcast appearances are one of the best ways to build authority and reach targeted audiences of ideal readers, as well as promote your book.Best of all, once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve appeared on a podcast, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to use your interview as proof of your expertise and experience when you pitch to other podcasts.This is especially beneficial if you self-published a book since you dont have the support of a big publishing house- youre doing all the book marketing on your own!And this is a powerful way to spread the word about all the good your book can do.Heres how to land author interviews:Do your researchRate and review the podcastFeature the podcast hostsTailor your pitchOffer ideas related to your bookLeverage common connections you haveSend samples of previous author interviewsCreate a one-sheetDeliver value firstNOTE: If youre ready to turn being an author into a real career, check out our Sell More Books Program where we teach you how to build sustainable income with book sales. Learn more about it hereWhy do you need author interviews?Author interviews are beneficial for authors to spread the word about themselves as an author as well as their new and previous books.Think about author interviews the same as celebrity interviews when they have movies or TV shows premiering.Heres how author interviews can benefit you:You will reach a new audienceYour audience will be more receptiveYou market yourself as an authorYou market your newest book launchYou can market any previous books you haveYou will gain a larger social platformYou will sell more booksOverall, author interviews can only help you in your quest to become a full-time author by offering you book marketing opportunities.Check out this example of how beneficial an author interview of our very own Student Success Coach, Lise Cartwright, can be below. Its available both on our Youtube channel and Podcast. With over 8700 views on Youtube and many listens on the podcast, this inter view certainly helped maintain her passive income through books.How to Get Author Interviews on PodcastsBelow, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll discover 9 simple strategies to stand out in the eyes of podcasters and land author interviews on their shows.#1 Do your researchFirst of all, listen to the show before reaching out to podcast hosts. Podcasters are often approached by an author who sends generic emails proclaiming Ã¢â¬Å"I love your show,Ã¢â¬ and then ask to become a guest to promote their book.Other times, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re approached with specific pitch letters, but the fit isnÃ¢â¬â¢t right.The reason for the mismatch usually is that the author who is pitching hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t listened to the show.If it feels like a chore to listen to the podcast, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a sign that you might be better off reaching out to a different podcast host.After all, you want to find podcasts that are in your niche, which usually happens to be those you listen to anyways.Here are a few things to ask yourself wh en you want to reach out to a podcast for an interview:Do you listen to them on your own?Do you resonate with their core message/theme?Are you involved in their community on a regular basis?Would you be proud to be a featured guest on their podcast?Are you a fan of past featured guests?Answering these positively will help you determine which podcasts to reach out to. Without doing the proper research, you could wind up upsetting the hosts and burning those bridges.#2 Rate and review the showOnce youÃ¢â¬â¢ve listened to a show, subscribe to it on iTunes. Then, rate and review, too.Ratings, reviews, and subscriptions help the podcastÃ¢â¬â¢s ranking. Most importantly, reviews are a powerful form of social proof that will encourage new people to listen.Mention the review when you submit your pitch. For example, you could write, Ã¢â¬Å"Listening to John DoeÃ¢â¬â¢s description of his struggle to grow his business in spite of his terminal disease was truly inspiring. Now, when thing s get tough, that message keeps me going. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why it was such a pleasure to write a 5-star review of your show on iTunes.Ã¢â¬ Your message will bring awareness to what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve done to support the show, greatly increasing your chances of landing a guest spot.#3 Feature the podcast hostsIf you currently have a podcast or YouTube channel, invite the host to be featured as a guest.By being on your show, the podcasters will learn about your background, and most importantly, about your book. In many cases, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be compelled to invite you as a guest.Even if the podcast hosts donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask you to be on their show, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re still much more likely to say yes when you ask them. Also, I send a copy of my book to my podcast guests, who in many cases write a review of the book on Amazon and then offer to have me on their show.If you dont have a podcast, then feature them on your social media or website.You could also write a blog post about the main lessons l earned from the show, and tag the host on social media when the article is published. Be cautious when applying this strategy, however.A subpar article, a half-hearted effort to capture whatÃ¢â¬â¢s valuable about the show, or overblown praise will probably backfire.#4 Tailor your pitch to the hostÃ¢â¬â¢s story and the mission of the showWhen I first pitched my ideas to Dave Lukas, host of the Misfit Entrepreneur Podcast, I mentioned how much I loved that heÃ¢â¬â¢d created the show as a legacy for his daughter.When he learned that I related to and understood his mission, it was easy for him to agree to have me on his show.You can do the same. Find out why they do what they do, and if it resonates with you, then center your pitch around that.Here are a few tips for tailoring your pitch to land your author interview:Mention something you learned from their showMake a connection from yourself to the shows mission and themeConnect your books message with their showsDoing this will help you reach podcast hosts much more effectively and show them youre a great fit for their show.#5 Offer three unique ideas related to your bookBefore I submit a pitch, I research the episodes in the past two to three months to see if anyone has explored the topics I have in mind.If my topics are fresh, I submit them. If not, I reposition my expertise with a different angle.My book is about influencer marketing. If I notice that only three weeks prior, another guest talked about influencer marketing as part of a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing mix, I pitch a different aspect of the topic, such as Ã¢â¬Å"how to build a list of subscribers with influencer marketing,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"how to initiate connections with social media influencers to launch your book.Ã¢â¬ Resist the temptation to speak about a topic that deviates from your book. If you do that, your interview will probably not bring in new book sales.I encourage you to take a moment right now and write down three to five to pic ideas based on the core message in your book, which you can modify depending on the targeted show.#6 Leverage common connections you have with the hostWho do you think has a better chance to get a last-minute appointment with a busy hair stylist: a complete stranger or the friend of a current customer?The same idea applies to landing guest appearances on a podcast. Common connections matter.Often, when I appear on a podcast, the host will offer to introduce me to other podcast hosts who might want to have me as a guest.This is one of the easiest ways to secure future guest appearances.You might not even need a formal introduction. When you pitch, just mention that you know one or more of their previous guests.The idea is to find common ground.#7 Send samples of previous interviewsIn every podcast pitch I submit, I include links to three of my most relevant and significant podcast appearances.Those podcast interviews are relevant because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re ideal for the audience of the new podcast IÃ¢â¬â¢m targeting, and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re significant because they have reached large audiences.If you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had podcast appearances yet, I encourage you to create audio or video clips with valuable content relevant to your audience that you publish on your site, and use those links as samples for the host.Even though samples of actual podcast interviews are much more powerful, the mere fact that you have a sample of your work will help you stand out among the competition.#8 Create a one-sheetTo save yourself time and effort, and to show your professionalism, I suggest you create a Ã¢â¬Å"one-sheet.Ã¢â¬ A one-sheet is a document thats a summary of who you are and what you offer as a guest.You could send the link to your one-sheet with your pitch, or use the information within the one-sheet to complete your guest request form or email pitch.Regardless of the situation, having this document readily available will save you time and effort.The main elements o f a one-sheet are: BioHeadshotPotential interview topicsTalking pointsRelevant linksAffiliate linksContact informationHeres an example of my own, personal one-sheet and what all the below information looks like compiled into, well, one sheet.Now lets delve into what each of these sections needs.BioCreate different versions of your bio (50-, 100-, 150-, and 200-word bios) so youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready when the podcast host asks you for a specific length. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re submitting the entire one-sheet, include the 100-word version of your bio in it.The bio should mention your book (even if you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t published it yet), and other credentials as proof of your expertise, along with at least one personal tidbit about yourself.HeadshotItÃ¢â¬â¢s standard for all podcast guests to submit their profile picture before theyÃ¢â¬â¢re interviewed. Invest in a professional photographer.No selfies, please!Potential interview topicsList no more than seven topics related to your book you could explore as a guest.You can check back to step number 5 if you need to generate some.Talking pointsSome hosts will ask you to provide talking points for the topic youÃ¢â¬â¢ll explore. Others favor a free-form style, and will lead the interview as an informal conversation.In either case, you should be prepared to provide talking points within 48 hours of being approved as a guest, though you can double check with the podcast host for specifics about this.Relevant linksInclude links to your main website, your book, your free offer for the listeners, and your primary social media pages.Depending on the host, you might also be asked to provide an affiliate link to a free download or low-ticket offer. In most cases, providing affiliate links isnÃ¢â¬â¢t required, but having the ability to create such a link on demand will help you stand out.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re submitting the one-sheet, then just write Ã¢â¬Å"Affiliate link for free download available.Ã¢â¬ Contact informationInclude your email address and phone number.Having your one-sheet ready will allow you to simply copy and paste the information when you complete guest request forms or pitch via email.#9 Always aim to deliver value firstAbove all, remember that your primary goal is to deliver value to your audience, and book sales will be a natural result of that value. If instead you approach the podcasters with the only intention to sell more books, they might simply ignore you.When you submit your pitch, always start what ifs a personalized explanation of why you are a fan of the show and how you can inspire and educate its audience.Then, mention your book as an additional asset listeners may benefit from.Value First!Good luck landing your author interview!After you land your first podcast appearance, itll be much easier for you to land the next. When you least expect it, the word about your book will have spread and you will make a much greater impact with your message.What matters most is that you take a ction and start reaching out to podcast hosts. You- and your book- deserve to be known!Ready to become a successful author?No successful author started from nothing.They had to work hard and earn their place by learning and applying what they learned when writing a book.Heres how you can learn more about how to become a successful author because youll never get there if you dont start today.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Software Management Metrics - Research Paper Example In this scenario, the majority of software development firms follows well-known industry standards such as ISO/IEC 15504 and CMMI. Additionally, in an attempt to improve the quality of developed products as well as their firmÃ¢â¬â¢s development potential and efficiency, a large number of approaches have been suggested in previous researches. Without a doubt, process assessment allows software development firms to understand their process capability and productivity, and taking into consideration the results of this assessment that firm can look forward to an improvement in its development processes by determining and understanding the strengths, weaknesses and risks associated with its processes and how to prevent them. Though, Software Engineering InstituteÃ¢â¬â¢s CMMI (capability maturity model integration) is specifically designed to measure the capability of processes of software development firms. In this scenario, a software development firm with high level maturity level i s believed to have more mature software development process as compared to software development firms those having a lower maturity level. Hence, these firms can develop software products more constantly. In their research article, (Hwang) define software process capability Ã¢â¬Å"as the potential of a software development firm to develop software products consistently and predictably.Ã¢â¬ In the same way, a capability level refers to a wide collection of process characteristics and measures that work in cooperation to bring a significant improvement in the capability of a software development firm to carry out a software development process. In addition, CMMI is based on five levels and each level is intended to offer a major improvement of capability in the performance of a process (Hwang; VanHilst, Garg and Lo; Pressman). A software metric can be defined as any measurement or calculation utilized to measure some
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
History- peasants in middle ages -book of hours - Essay Example Those are good days. This morning, however, we all awoke and had to begin work without any food to prepare us for the long day ahead. My task for the day was to work on the land for the Lord of the manor, starting to plant some of the crops for the year ahead. My father died at the age of 27, but before this he was a skilled craftsman, carving all the tools necessary for the horses of the manor. It was said that he was the best of his age and many other Lords had tried to buy his services, but he died before I was born so I could not learn his skill. I am therefore relegated to mere farm work. It is cold today, as it is early Spring and my hands are so sore from the weather that it is hard to work quickly. It may mean a beating from the Lord as time is precious when it comes to crops, as the fertilization needs to start next week or the manor risks losing profit. I am wearing my best woollen tunic and have managed to wrap the animal skin I use for a blanket around me, but still the weather is bitingly cold and it is a relief to finally see the sun rise. After hours of work, which I can only estimate to be 8 from the pattern of the sun, it is time to head back to the stables to see what food I can find. The other serfs from the manor estate are there, and everyone seems pleased that the sun is shining and work seems to be going well. Even my work on the farm has sped up since my hands have thawed out with the arrival of some spring weather. There are even some scraps of meat to have with the bread for lunch, which makes this an unusual day but we all go back to work comparatively well-fed and work continues in much the same way as it had this morning. The sky falls dark after a few more hours of work, and I know this is a sign that I need only work for a few hours more. Using the moon as a guide, work begins to slow down as accurate planting is impossible. My mother is ill, so after
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Bruno Boy in the Striped Pajamas Essay TALKATIVE Bruno is portrayed as talkative in the novel The Boy in the Striped Pajamas because when he went exploring he found a boy, named Shmuel on the other side of the fence he was not afraid to not only talk to him but, to have a bit of a conversation with Shmuel, although he had never met this boy before. Here is some of the conversation the two young boys carried on the first time they had met: Ã¢â¬Å"Hello,Ã¢â¬ said Bruno. Ã¢â¬Å"Hello,Ã¢â¬ said the boy. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been exploring,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Have you?Ã¢â¬ said the little boy. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. For almost two hours now.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Have you found anything?Ã¢â¬ asked the boy. Ã¢â¬Å"Very little.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing at all?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, I found you,Ã¢â¬ said Bruno after a moment (page 106-107). CREATIVE Bruno is described as creative in this novel because when he let it slip to his sister that because of the rain he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been able to go and see Shmuel for a few days he was quickly able to make up an excuse that Shmuel was his imaginative friend: Ã¢â¬Å"I have a new friend,Ã¢â¬ he began. Ã¢â¬Å"A new friend that I go see everyday. And heÃ¢â¬â¢ll be waiting for me by now. But you cant tell anyone.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why Not?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Because heÃ¢â¬â¢s an imaginary friend,Ã¢â¬ said Bruno trying his best to look embarrassed, just like Lieutenant Kotler had when he had became trapped in his story about his father in Switzerland. Ã¢â¬Å"We play together everydayÃ¢â¬ (page 155) CURIOUS In this novel Bruno is showed as curious because he loves to explore even though it is off limits at the new house, Ã¢â¬ËOut-WithÃ¢â¬â¢, Here is an example of a time when Bruno went exploring: Ã¢â¬ËBefore heading of in that direction, though, there was one final thing to investigate and that was the bench. All of these months heÃ¢â¬â¢d been looking at it and staring at the plaque from a distance and calling it Ã¢â¬Ëthe bench with the plaqueÃ¢â¬â¢, but he still had no idea what it said. Looking left and right to make sure that no one was coming, he ran over to it and squinted as he read the words. It was only a small bronze plaque and Bruno read it quietly to himself. Ã¢â¬ËPresented on the occasion of the opening ofÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He hesitated. Ã¢â¬ËOut-With Camp,Ã¢â¬â¢ he continued, stumbling over the name as usual. Ã¢â¬ËJune nineteen fortyÃ¢â¬â¢ (page102). CARING Bruno is defined as caring throughout the book because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t recognize the various barriers presented, between him and Shmuel, Bruno is also very caring as he treats Shmuel as an equal unlike the soilderÃ¢â¬â¢s and many people around him. Ã¢â¬ËPerhaps you can come to dinner with us one evening,Ã¢â¬â¢ said Bruno, although he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure it was a very good idea. Ã¢â¬ËPerhaps,Ã¢â¬â¢ said Shmuel, although he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t sound convinced. Ã¢â¬ËOr I could come to you,Ã¢â¬â¢ said Bruno. Ã¢â¬ËPerhaps I could come and meet your friends,Ã¢â¬â¢ he added hopefully (page 132). This specific reference from the novel shows two different barriers between Shmuel and Bruno, one being the fence between them and the other being the families when they go to supper together.